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The referencing style used at SCMOI is a note-bibliography system. Footnotes (at the bottom of each page) are used for in-text citations and a bibliography providing the full list of sources cited in your document is used after the conclusion of your piece (on its own page).

In addition to the information provided in this guide on how to reference particular sources there are some overall style rules you need to follow, which are detailed below.


1. In the first mention of a work, the full bibliographical information is supplied (except that a series title may be cited by the usual acronym).

2. In the next and subsequent mentions, the surname of the author(s) (or editors etc. as applicable) and short title are used.

3. op. cit., and ibid are never used.

4. p. and pp. are not used; the page number suffices. Students MUST indicate the page number(s) of any published, paginated work they are citing (Biblical references excepted, as they are cited by chapter and verse)

5. If referring to more than one volume in a multi-volume set, use roman numerals to identify the volume followed by a period (full stop) and page numbers. e.g.

    1. Hengel, Judaism and Hellenism, II.23–35.

6The footnote index in the text is placed after, not before, a punctuation mark, thus: 

        which occurred in 1788, - NOT ...which occurred in 1788

7. In footnotes the author’s (or editor’s etc. as applicable) first name (or names) comes first, as distinct from a bibliography or list of references where the surname comes first in order to facilitate listing works in the alphabetical order of their respective authors.

8. Use semi-colons (;) to separate two or more citations in the one footnote. Citations to appear in the same order as they are

 presented in the bibliography (alphabetically by creator's surname).


1. A bibliography providing full details of all sources consulted when preparing a document is placed at the end of the document on its own page. 

2. Sources are listed in alphabetical order by authors’, editors’, or compilers’ surnames. If the author is unknown, arrange the entry in alphabetical order by the title.

3. When you have multiple bibliographic entries from the same author, arrange alphabetically by title.

4. The subtitle of a work should follow a colon placed at the end of the main title, e.g. MAIN TITLE Judaism and Hellenism: SUBTITLE Studies in Their Encounter in Palestine in the Early Hellenistic Period.

5. The title of a series of works is not italicised, even when in a foreign language (e.g. Ancient Christian Texts – NOT Ancient Christian Texts; Sacra Pagina – NOT Sacra Pagina).

6. Page numbers, when cited (as for journal articles and for essays from collected works, etc.) do not need “pp.” – just list at the end of the entry preceded by a comma.

7. Online articles should have URL and date of access (the date the work was examined online).

                                          Example Bibliography

​Blumenthall, H.M., “Alexandria as a Centre of Greek Philosophy in Later Classical Antiquity,” Illinois Classical Studies 18 (1993), 207–325.

Bockmuehl, Markus, and Guy G. Strousma (eds), Paradise in Antiquity: Jewish and Christian Views (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010).

Bouttier, Michel, En Christ: Étude d' exégèse et de théologie pauliniennes (Études d'histoire et de philosophie religieuses 54; Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1962).

Cameron, A., “Poets and Pagans in Byzantine Egypt,” in Egypt in the Byzantine World 300–400 (ed. R.S. Bagnall; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), 21–46.

Cyril of Alexandria, Commentary on John (2 vols; trans. David R. Maxwell; ed. Joel C. Elowsky; Ancient Christian Texts; Downers Grove: IVP Academic, 2013–15).

Hengel, Martin, Judaism and Hellenism: Studies in Their Encounter in Palestine in the Early Hellenistic Period (2 vols.; London: SCM, 1974).





et al




et alii, et aliae (and others) - from Latin

MA Thesis


Master of Arts Thesis



No date of publication


No place of publication

PhD Diss





Ph.D. Dissertation/Thesis





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