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Below are instructions on how to reference the holy Fathers of the Church, saints, and ancient writers in general (i.e., Plato, Aristotle, etc.).



In the assessment’s text, and always at first mention, the glorified Saints of the Church should be referred to using an appropriate appellation: e.g., ‘Saint Irenaeus’, ‘Venerable Bede’, ‘New Hieromartyr Hilarion.’



Orthodox hierarchs, clergy, and monastics should be referred to by their appropriate ecclesiastical title in the assessment’s text, particularly at their first mention, e.g., ‘Metropolitan Kallistos (Ware)’ or ‘Metropolitan Kallistos’ (not ‘Ware’); ‘Archbishop Dimitri (Royster)’ or ‘Archbishop Dimitri’ (not ‘Royster’); ‘Protopresbyter Georges Florovsky’ or ‘Fr Georges’ (not ‘Florovsky’). 

Please note that no titles or pronominal letters are to be used in the bibliography. They may be used in the first footnote reference (optional) but the author’s full name must be noted in the first footnote reference (non-optional).




When citing patristic texts or works by other ancient authors, in most cases you do not use the page numbers employed for specific pages of an individual book; rather, you use the line or section numbers allocated to the specific text that remain consistent throughout different editions and translations, just as you would do with biblical references. 

Reference Structure: First footnote

Note number. Ancient Author’s Full Name, Title of Book: Subtitle of Book (volume; translator; editor; Series and Series number; Place of Publication: Publisher’s Name, edition, Year of Publication), Book.Section.line/verse number.


1. Plato, Laws: Books VII–XII (vol.11; trans. R. G. Bury; ed. Jeffrey Henderson; LCL 192; Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1926), VII.833e.
2. Ignatius of Antioch, The Letters (trans. Alistair Stewart; PPS 49; Yonkers: St Vladimir's Seminary Press, 2013), Magnesians 6.
3. Cyril of Alexandria, Commentary on John (vol.1; trans. David R. Maxwell; ed. Joel C. Elowsky; ACT; Downers Grove: IVP Academic, 2013), IV:18.

Subsequent Footnotes

Note number. Abbreviated Version of Ancient Author’s Name, Shortened Title of Book, Book.Section.line/verse number. 

1. Plato, Laws, XI.931b–d.
2. Ignatius, Letters, Magnesians 5.
3. Cyril, Commentary on John, IV:17–18.

Citing commentary on ancient source: If you wish to cite a modern introduction, commentary, etc., of a specific edition or translation of an ancient source, reference the work with the modern author as the author following the patterns outlined in the Books tab.


References to the Fathers or to ancient writers employ the same layout as general book references, with the Church Father or ancient author being identified as the “author” of the work, e.g.:

Chrysostom, John, Letters to Saint Olympia (trans. David C. Ford; Popular Patristics Series 56.; Yonkers: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 2016).

Cyril of Alexandria, Commentary on John (2 vols; trans. David R. Maxwell; ed. Joel C. Elowsky; Ancient Christian Texts; Downers Grove: IVP Academic, 2013–2015).

One variation on the bibliographical presentation unique to this group of authors is the layout of the Church Father or ancient author’s name. In some cases, they are listed by their first name, e.g. ‘Cyril of Alexandria;’ however, in instances where an ancient writer is commonly known by a name other than their first name then they may be listed by that name first, e.g., ‘Chrysostom, John’ should be used rather than ‘John Chrysostom,’ and ‘Josephus, Titus Flavius’ rather than ‘Titus Flavius Josephus’.

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